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Mycology is the study of fungi as we said earlier which includes the study of fungi in different aspects. Fungi are eukaryotic organisms which can be seen occuring as yeasts, molds or also can be found in both the forms. Mycology include the study of fungi in different aspects of their usage to human life and their harmful affects on the nature.
They can be seen useful to human society by the manufacturing of different medicine, food entheogens and their dangers can be seen due to their poisonous nature and infection causing properties of some kinds of fungi.
Biologists who study mycology are called as mycologists. Some of our well known mycologists are Elias Magnus Fries, Christian Hendrik Persoon, Anton de Bary and Lewis David von Schweinitz.
The ability of fungii to enter into the tissue is first found in 19 th century. But the first fungal infection is found noted in 1835 which is seen in silkworms disease called muscardine disease which is proved to be caused by Beauvenia bassiana. This was found by a mycologist called Bassi.
Fungus can be found in each and every atmospheric conditions and can be seen exposed in every kind of living organisms in various fields of life. We can see both the beneficial and harmful effects of fungi some of which we are going to see in our Mycology page.
Benefits of Fungii :
We can see fungii helping in the decomposition of nutrient and carbon recycling.
Fungii help in the processings of biosynthetic factories in the fermentation process which is used for the industrial production of alchohols, citric acids, oxalic acids, gluconic acids and also in the production of fats.
They act as the important source for the production of Penicillin.
They act as the main model organisms for bio-chemical and genetic studies for example we can say Neurospora crassa.
Fungii named Saccharomyces cerviciae is the basically useful product as a recombinent in DNA technology which helps to produce vaccine for Hepatitis B.
Some fungi called mushrooms are edible.
Penicillium is used to add flavour the Roquefort and Camembert cheeses.
They also help to control malaria as they are used to trap mosquito larvae in paddy fields. The fungii useful for this are Leptolegnia caudate and Aphanomyces laevis.
Fungii like yeasts form the nutritional supplements such as vitamins and cofactors.
Some of the fungal products are used to control bleedig and also treatment of migrane called as Ergot that is produced by Claviceps purpurea which makes a prodominant usage in medical field.
Harmful effects of fungi:
Fungii mostly play a vital role in the destruction of food, umber, paper and cloth.
They cause many diseases in humans including allergies.
Many types of toxins are produced by the fungii like mushrooms and within food also.
Fungii damage the products like magnetic tapes, glass lenses, bones, wax and also marble statues are also get damaged.
Agriculture products like fruits, vegetables, cereals are also seen spoiled when stored for a long time in the godown.
Properties of Fungi in general:
- Fungii generally found obtaining nutrients from decaying matter(saprophytes) or from living matter as parasites.
- Ergosterols are found in the membranes of fungii and they possesses 80S ribosomes.
- They are seen reproducing by sexual or asexual methods by producing spores.
Food is stored in the form of lipids and glycogen generally.
Fungii generally have their cell walls rigid and are non-motile. This separates these organisms from animals and all the fungal cell walls are made of Chitin.
They grow by reproducing by budding or can be seen by hypal tip elongation by non-reproductive methods.
Fungii are eukaryotic cells containing membrane bound cell organelles. They include nuclei, mitochondria, golgi, apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes etc. They exhibit mitosis also.